The results and accomplishments from basic and applied research and development performed under these grants are reported in the open scientific literature. University research may be integrated with ongoing research and development programs at the DOE national laboratories which will facilitate access to and use of special facilities and equipment. The objective of these grants is to advance the state of knowledge on science and technology. The final product may lead to improved or new commercial products to ensure availability to the U.S. arms control and nonproliferation community. It is expected that less than 20 grants will be awarded per year.